Andean Flamingo Conservation

Andean Flamingo Conservation

BANNER IMAGE: Flamingos at Lake Vilama, high in the Andes Mountains in Argentina. | Photo by Enrique Derlindati

The Andean Flamingo is endemic to the Andes Mountains and is among the rarest waterbird species on the planet. Although seemingly out of place in the barren landscape of the high Andes, three of the six flamingo species on the planet (Andean, Puna, and Chilean Flamingos) breed exclusively in high Andean lakes. In particular, the Andean Flamingo (Phoenicoparrus andinus) is among the rarest of all flamingo species and listed as Vulnerable (i.e., with a “high risk of endangerment in the wild”) by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. It is also listed in the Convention of Migratory Species as “facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future.”

Research Scientist Alex Jahn holds an Andean Flamingo.

Andean Flamingos migrate between distantly separated wetlands, which they depend on to breed and forage for food. Many of these wetlands, however, are drying up due to climate change and are becoming increasingly polluted due to mining activities. The central Andes are home to some of the largest lithium reserves on the planet, and a need for lithium in rechargeable batteries in a variety of devices from phones to electric vehicles is driving much of the mining activity in and near the wetlands these birds depend upon. As a result, numerous mining companies are rushing to provide this unique element to an increasingly hungry rechargeable battery market.

To study whether and how these mining activities and climate change impact Andean Flamingos, Alex Jahn, MCB co-director and research scientist with the IU Department of Biology, is collaborating with colleagues in Argentina: Enrique Derlindati is a researcher at the Universidad Nacional de Salta, and Joaquín Cereghetti is experienced in using satellite transmitters to track bird movements. The researchers use satellite transmitters attached to the flamingos to track their movements, and identify: 1) the wetlands they use during different times of year, 2) which parts of the wetlands they use, and 3) the timing of their movements between wetlands.

Researchers Joaquín Cereghetti, Enrique Derlindati, and Alex Jahn.

With this information, Jahn and his colleagues will provide recommendations to local government and non-government agencies across the range of the Andean Flamingo. For example, if flamingo movements show that the birds are using a specific set of wetlands in a predictable manner (e.g., at the same time of year, across years), they will recommend a management strategy focused on protecting a handful of specific sites, whereas if the flamingo movements are unpredictable and they use a wide range of wetlands, the researchers will recommend a strategy that focuses on protecting multiple sites across a wider area and that considers how the birds use these sites at different times of year.

Scroll through the images to view scenes from the researchers' 2022 visit to Lake Vilama in Argentina.

Traveling to Lake Vilama from Salta.
A herd of vicuñas (a New World camelid) seen by the researchers on their way to Lake Vilama.
Stopping for a break during the trip.
Biological station near Lake Vilama.
Flamingos on Lake Vilama.  
Counting flamingos on the lake.
Flamingo footprints on the lake bottom.
Enrique holding a Puna Flamingo.
Puna Flamingo before being released.
Joaquín and Enrique working on the water heater at the biological station.
Having lunch in the field.
An ancient dwelling at Lake Vilama.
A closer look at the ancient dwelling at Lake Vilama.
Pre-dawn scene near Lake Vilama.
The puna (high Andean plateau) near Lake Vilama.
Driving to Lake Vilama from the biological station.
Andean Flamingo wing.
Releasing an Andean Flamingo that had just been outfitted with a transmitter.
Mountains near Lake Vilama.

Derlindati has been working with a group of specialists from Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as part of the High Andes Flamingo Conservation Group. The goal of the group is to create an international network of protected wetlands crucial to flamingos and other wetland species in the high Andes. Thus, the results of the MCB project on tracking Andean Flamingos will contribute to inform the group’s initiative, helping identify which wetlands deserve the greatest attention to conserve the Andean Flamingo and its habitat.

Jahn and his colleagues have more recently begun studying Puna Flamingos, which are often found alongside Andean Flamingos, since recent evidence suggests that both species are negatively impacted by both mining and climate change. The main beneficiaries from these activities will be the flamingos themselves, the wetlands they inhabit, and the local people who will enjoy the benefits of having healthy wetlands (e.g., clean drinking water).

Short documentary about Andean Flamingo conservation research

Twenty flamingos (large pink wading birds) follow a path through the vegetation in a shallow lake.

Short documentary (2:36) on research on Andean flamingos, which are facing rapid changes to their environment.

View video

Documental corto (2:27) sobre la investigación de los flamencos andinos, cuales enfrentan rápidos cambios a su ambiente.

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Interactive map

Do you want to see how the tagged flamingos are moving among the different sites? Visit the interactive map posted by the researchers.

View the interactive map

News story

For additional information about the research, read the news story: IU researcher tracks rare Andean flamingos facing threats from mining, climate change.

Read the story

Poster presentation

Download the poster "South American Flamingos: Vulnerability to anthropogenic pressures" presented by Nicolas A. Lois at the 2nd Ornithological Congress of the Americas in Brazil.

Download the poster